Hindu and Buddhist Architectural Heritage of Pakistan – Part 2


PunjabThe majority of Punjab’s residents (population) were predominantly Hindu while Buddhists were also in minorities, just like they were in other South Asian countries at the time lower Punjab and Sindh region was attacked by Muhammad bin Qasim. This great Muslim warrior reached this region leading Umayyad Muslim Arab Army in 713. It was the time when this region faced a phase of Islamic conversion and majority of Punjabi population converted to Islam. Some Indian regions also converted into Islam at the same time. The region went this conversion process for the next ten centuries, but still the region had a considerable Hindu population. Sikhs were also in significant population in Punjab who previously were Hindu and converted to Sikhism.

1 – Pothohar Plateau

The Pothohar Plateau is a significant historical plateau located in north-eastern Pakistan. It spreads between the western parts of Azad Kashmir and the north Punjab. Some ancient archaeological sites of this plateau proved this area as the home to Soanian Culture, because the archaeologists find several remains, coins, tools and fossils of Soanian Culture in this area. Potwari is the only local language while some minorities also speaks Pashto, Punjabi and Hindko.

1 - Pothohar Plateau
Taxila is probably the most ancient site located on the Pothohar Plateau, which has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Taxila is widely known as the seat of learning for Hindu and Buddhist believers where a vast variety of worldwide students tours every year. The Achaemenid Empire (the first known Persian Empire in Taxila history) controlled this area in the start which then was conquered by Alexander the Great. It was a high-profile city during the first-fifth centuries AD and finally got destroyed by Hunas in between c.450 to c.565.

2 – Sagala or Sangala:

Sagala or sometimes called as Sangala is an ancient Greek name which was used in the past to call a modern Pakistani city Sialkot. This is a renowned city in northern Punjab, Pakistan. Native Indian sub-continent residents also called this city as Sakala during ancient times. Sagala (or Sialkot) was the capital city during King Menander I’s reign (a great successor Greek kingdom) in this region.

Sagala or Sangala:

3 – Sialkot:

Sialkot is the district capital of the Sialkot District and is located at a distance of around 78 miles (125 kilometers of Punjab’s capital Lahore towards north-west. Sialkot is located very near to Chenab river just around the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir. The recorded history of this region claimed the existence of this city for thousands of years. The region faced number of rulers throughout the history, including British, Mughal, Sikh, Turk, Afghan, Greek, Buddhist, Persian and Hindu.


4 – Ganeriwala or Ganweriwala:

Ganeriwala or you may say Ganweriwala is widely recognized as another great site in Punjab, Pakistan that is the part of an Indus Valley Civilization in the history. This historically renowned region of Punjab is very close to dry river bed of Ghaggar-Hakra just around the Indian border, which is currently the part of a large desert. This is comparatively the largest site of Indus Valley Civilization with more than 80 hectares of area. The history wrote it as the largest town of this civilization.

Ganeriwala or Ganweriwala

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